Lesson 2: Elements of Grammar Instruction


1. An explicit analysis of grammar refers to the pedagogical scaffolding and specific treatment of grammar points in second language instruction.

2. Focus on FORMS refers to the structuring of a lesson plan/syllabus according to grammatical points.

3. Focus on FORM refers to the incidental analysis of grammar points as they arise in the context of the analysis of language meanings.

4. The finding of previous cognitive psychology experiments that learners tend to remember the meaning of a text rather than its exact wording provides direct support for which pedagogical procedure?

Clear Answers


Claire Kramsch (1993: 179) presents a strong argument in favor of developing metalinguistic awareness of the type that leads second language learners to become critical thinkers as they go about analyzing L2 data:

"Authentic speech is often presented and read in language classes in the same uncritical way as such language is used by most native speakers - as if the classroom could ever be, or even should try to imitate, the natural environment of restaurants and workplaces."

To what extent does Kramsch's argument above set up a competition for resources (e.g., class time) to develop metalinguistic awareness as a critical thinking endeavor versus the development of linguistic skills (i.e., encyclopedic and interactional levels)?