Further Reading

Communicative Competence

Canale, M. and Swain, M. 1980. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1 (1), 1-47.

Hymes, D. 1972. On communicative competence. In J.B. Pride and J. Holmes (eds.). Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Savignon, S. 1997. Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Designing and Teaching Communicative Tasks

Brandl. K. 2009. Chapter 8 Developing oral communication skills. In Communicative Language Teaching in Action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Folse, K. 2006. The Art of Teaching Speaking: Research and Pedagogy for the ESL/EFL Classroom. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Johnson, K. 2003. Designing Language Teaching Tasks. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Klippel, F. 1984. Keep Talking: Communicative Fluency Activities for Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, J. 2000. Tasks and Communicating in Language Classrooms. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Thornbury, S. 2005. How to Teach Speaking. Pearson/Longman.

Yule, G. 1997. Referential Communication Tasks. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Models of Oral Communication

Levelt, W. 1989. Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. Boston: MIT Press.

Task-based Language Teaching

Ellis, R. 2003. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nunan, D. 2004. Task-based Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.